1. The Beginning

One of the most impressive things about Edinburgh is the geography. The Castle Rock sits in the centre and you can see it from almost all parts of the city. This great landscape was built by fire and shaped by ice. First volcanoes 350 million years ago made the hills out of basalt; then the last ice-age covered the area in ice, snow and woolly mammoths. A 5ft (1.5m) mammoth tusk was found in the Edinburgh area, but it probably didn't think it was living in the capital of Scotland. When the ice disappeared the beautiful hills and cliffs that make Edinburgh were left behind.

Illustration: mammoths

The First Edinburger

Humans may have lived in Edinburgh since the ice-age but the oldest we know about come from 4000 years ago. These people are called “Bronze Age” because of the metal alloy they used, (a mixture of copper and tin). The oldest Edinburger was found in Juniper Green. It was a man who lived in 2150BC. Scientists looking at his skull believe he was between 40-55 years old and ate a lot of protein, but not fish. They don't know if he ate his protein deep-fried and with chips and brown sauce.

  1. What created the geography of Edinburgh? Volcanoes and glaciers.
  2. What do we know about the first man who lived in Edinburgh? A Bronze Age man aged 40-55 who lived in 2150 BC.